Directions: Read the short text on The Crusades and answer the following questions. Email your answers to olympusglobal@gmail.com.

The Crusades
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During the Middle Ages Europeans had only one significant unifying aspect of life. The Catholic Church controlled every aspect of society. Waging war with another feudal lord was often viewed as an economic venture where loyalties were easily broken if the price was right. Battling for the Church was an entirely different thing, rivalries were forgotten if the Church needed defending.

For about 200 years, Western Europe under the control of the Catholic Church, attempted to retake the Holy Land away from the Muslims. This known as the Crusades, a series of wars between European Christians and Muslims from the Middle East. Theses wars lasted for over 200 years.
The largest target was the holy city of Jerusalem, however, other areas were fought over, such as the city of Constantinople. Jerusalem remains a religiously significant and contested site today with
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Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all having a vested interest.

Although the Christians won the first Crusade they were never able to effectively maintain control. During the second Crusade the Muslims retook Jerusalem. Over the next hundred years the Europeans would unsuccessfully attempt to retake Jerusalem. In the end, the Christians returned to Europe and the Muslims controlled Jerusalem for the next several hundred years.

The Crusades created changed European society in many ways. The majority of feudal lords were killed, which allowed the few remaining to gain more power, eventually resulting in the rise of nation-states and absolute monarchs. Also, cultural diffusion occurred between the Arab and European worlds. New ideas and trade goods flowed between the two areas which eventually brought Europe to the forefront of world affairs.


Questions:
1. Describe the role of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
2. What were the Crusades?
3. What city was the Crusades fought over?
4. Who eventually won the Crusades? Explain why?
4. Describe two effects the Crusades had on Europe.